We perceive them as they really are. Scientific realism is, at the most general level, the view that the world described by science is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be. Within philosophy of science , it is often framed as an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained? Generally, those who are scientific realists assert that one can make reliable claims about unobservables viz. Analytic philosophers generally have a commitment to scientific realism, in the sense of regarding the scientific method as a reliable guide to the nature of reality.
The main alternative to scientific realism is instrumentalism.
Realism in physics especially quantum mechanics is the claim that the world is in some sense mind-independent: that even if the results of a possible measurement do not pre-exist the act of measurement, that does not require that they are the creation of the observer contrary to the " consciousness causes collapse " interpretation of quantum mechanics.
That interpretation of quantum mechanics, on the other hand, states that the wave function is already the full description of reality. The different possible realities described by the wave function are equally true.
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The observer collapses the wave function into their own reality. One's reality can be mind-dependent under this interpretation of quantum mechanics. Moral realism is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world.
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Aesthetic realism not to be confused with the Aesthetic Realism of Eli Siegel , the philosophy that sees reality as the making one of opposites may mean the claim that there are mind-independent aesthetic facts,   but in general discussions about art "realism" is a complex term that may have a number of different meanings. In ancient Greek philosophy , realist doctrines about universals were proposed by Plato and Aristotle. Platonic realism is realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects. As universals were considered by Plato to be ideal forms , this stance is confusingly also called Platonic idealism.
This should not be confused with Idealism , as presented by philosophers such as George Berkeley : as Platonic abstractions are not spatial, temporal, or mental, they are not compatible with the latter Idealism's emphasis on mental existence. Plato's Forms include numbers and geometrical figures, making them a theory of mathematical realism ; they also include the Form of the Good , making them in addition a theory of ethical realism.
Aristotelian realism is the view that the existence of universals is dependent on the particulars that exemplify them. Medieval realism developed out of debates over the problem of universals. Realism also known as exaggerated realism in this context, contrasted with conceptualism and nominalism , holds that such universals really exist, independently and somehow prior to the world. Moderate realism holds that they exist, but only insofar as they are instantiated in specific things; they do not exist separately from the specific thing.
Conceptualism holds that they exist, but only in the mind, while nominalism holds that universals do not "exist" at all but are no more than words flatus vocis that describe specific objects. Scotist realism. In early modern philosophy , Scottish Common Sense Realism was a school of philosophy that sought to defend naive realism against philosophical paradox and scepticism , arguing that matters of common sense are within the reach of common understanding and that common-sense beliefs even govern the lives and thoughts of those who hold non-commonsensical beliefs.
It originated in the ideas of the most prominent members of the Scottish School of Common Sense, Thomas Reid , Adam Ferguson and Dugald Stewart , during the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment and flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Scotland and America. The approach was a response to the "ideal system" that began with Descartes' concept of the limitations of sense experience and led Locke and Hume to a skepticism that called religion and the evidence of the senses equally into question. The common sense realists found skepticism to be absurd and so contrary to common experience that it had to be rejected.
They taught that ordinary experiences provide intuitively certain assurance of the existence of the self, of real objects that could be seen and felt and of certain "first principles" upon which sound morality and religious beliefs could be established. Its basic principle was enunciated by its founder and greatest figure, Thomas Reid: .
In late modern philosophy , a notable school of thought advocating metaphysical realism was Austrian realism. Dialectical materialism , a philosophy of nature based on the writings of late modern philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels , is interpreted to be a form of ontological realism. According to Michael Resnik , Gottlob Frege 's work after can be interpreted as a contribution to realism. Austin ,  Karl Popper ,   and Gustav Bergmann  espoused metaphysical realism.
Hilary Putnam initially espoused metaphysical realism,  but he later embraced a form of anti-realism that he termed " internal realism.
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Speculative realism is a movement in contemporary Continental -inspired philosophy  that defines itself loosely in its stance of metaphysical realism against the dominant forms of post-Kantian philosophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical concept.
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See also: Metaphysical anti-realism and Mathematical Platonism. See also: Indirect realism. See also: History of metaphysical naturalism. Main article: Platonic realism.
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